Urdu – The Origin and History of the Language

The term Urdu derives from a Turkish word ordu meaning camp or army. The Urdu language developed between the Muslim soldiers of the Mughals armies who belonged to varied ethnicities like Turks, Arabs, Persians, Pathans, Balochis, Rajputs, Jats and Afghans. These soldiers lived in shut contact with each other and communicated in several dialects, which slowly and gradually developed into present day Urdu. It’s for this reason that Urdu can be referred to as Lashkari Zaban or language of the army.

During its development Urdu language also assumed various names like the term Urdu-e-Maullah meaning the exalted military which was given by Emperor Shah Jahan and the time period Rekhta which means scattered (with Persian words) which was coined by the scholars for Urdu poetry.

History and Evolution of Urdu Language

Evolution and development of any language is dependent on the evolution and development of a society where that language is spoken. Numerous invasions and conquests on a place affect the development of its language. Urdu is no exception as it additionally underwent various phases of development.

Urdu belongs to the Indo-Aryan household of languages. Urdu by origin is considered to be a descendent of Saur Senic Prakrit. The term Prakrriti means root or basis. It is a later model of Sanskrit. As Prakrit language began to develop, it was influenced by Western Hindi dialects of Khari Boli, Brij Bhasa and Haryanvi.

With the coming of Insha’s Darya-e-Latafat*, a necessity was felt to distinguish Urdu with different languages especially Hindi. It became a Hindi-Urdu controversy and as a result Khari Boli and Devanagari became the identity of Indians while Urdu and Persian of Muslims. In this context, Persian and Arabic words changed with Sanskrit served the purpose of differentiating Hindi from Urdu.

Urdu emerged as a definite language after 1193 AD – the time of the Muslims conquest. When the Muslims conquered this part of the continent, they made Persian the official and cultural language of India. As a result of the amalgamation of local dialects and the language of the invaders – which was either Persian, Arabic and Turkish, a new language developed which later became Urdu. In the course of the Mughals reign, Urdu was spoken in palaces and court and till the tip of the Mughal rule; Urdu was the official language of most of Mughal states. This was the time when Urdu had turn into Persianized and enriched with Persian words, phrases and even script and grammar. With the coming of the British, new English words also turned part of the Urdu language. Many English words have been accepted of their real form while others were accepted after some modifications.

At present, Urdu vocabulary comprises approximately 70% of Persian words and the rest are a mix of Arabic and Turkish words. Nonetheless, there are also traces of the French, Portuguese and Dutch language in Urdu. However these influences are little.

Urdu was taken to different parts of the country by soldiers, saints and sufis and by the common people. As a result of the political, social and cultural contacts amongst the individuals of different speech and dialects, a blended form of language formed called ‘Rekhta’ (Urdu and Persian in mixed form). Quickly folks started to make use of the new language of their speech and in literature which resulted within the enrichment of Urdu language and literature.

Urdu Literature

The origin of Urdu literature dates back to the thirteenth century in India through the Mughal rule. Some of the eminent earliest poets who made usage of Urdu in his poetry is Amir Khusro who could be called the daddy of Urdu language. In literature, Urdu was usually used along side Persian. Mughal kings have been the good patrons of art and literature and it was under their rule that Urdu language reached its zenith. There used to be a tradition of ‘Sheri Mehfils’ (poetic gatherings) in the kings’ courts. Abul Fazal Faizi and Abdul Rahim Khankhana had been the well-known Urdu poets of Mughal court. Likewise, Mirza Ghalib, Allama Iqbal, Hakim Momin, Ibrahim Zauq, Mir Taqi Mir, Sauda, Ibn-e-Insha and Faiz Ahmed Faiz have contributed to the evolution of Urdu language by means of their literary works.

It is certainly true that Hindi and Urdu are descendents of the same language i.e. Prakrit, however where the Hindi took influence from Sanskrit and adopted Devanagri script of writing, Urdu absorbed words from Persian, Turkish and Arabic languages and adopted Persian-Arabic script and Nastaliq calligraphic fashion of writing and emerged as a separate language. However beside widespread ancestry, the two languages are as totally different as can be. There are marked grammatical, phonological and lexical variations in both languages.

Urdu was additionally used as a tool by the Muslims for freedom battle and for creating awareness amongst Muslim communities in South Asia to unite under the banner of Independence from British Raj. For this, companies of Maulana Hali, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Allama Iqbal are usually notable, who by way of their poetry and prose provoked the mandatory spark in the lives of the Muslims. Urdu was chosen to turn out to be the national language of Pakistan on the time of Independence from British. Urdu is now the national language of Pakistan, spoken and understood thoroughly by majority of the population.

In the event you loved this article and you wish to receive more details relating to meaning in urdu please visit our own website.

3 Responses to Urdu – The Origin and History of the Language

  1. This article is genuinely a good one it assists new the web viewers, who are wishing in favor of
    blogging.

  2. For newest information you have to pay a visit world-wide-web and on the web I found this web site as
    a finest site for hottest updates.

  3. hey says:

    Awesome article.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *